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Κυριακή, 25 Φεβρουαρίου 2018

Spinal Cord Stimulation 50 Years Later: Clinical Outcomes of Spinal Cord Stimulation Based on Randomized Clinical Trials—A Systematic Review

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To assess the efficacy of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for each indication, one must critically assess each specific clinical outcome to identify outcomes that benefit from SCS therapy. To date, a comprehensive review of clinically relevant outcome-specific evidence regarding SCS has not been published. We aimed to assess all randomized controlled trials from the world literature for the purpose of evaluating the clinical outcome-specific efficacy of SCS for the following outcomes: perceived pain relief or change pain score, quality of life, functional status, psychological impact, analgesic medication utilization, patient satisfaction, and health care cost and utilization. Interventions were SCS, without limitation to the type of controls or the type of SCS in the active arms. For each study analyzed, a quality assessment was performed using a validated scale that assesses reporting, external validity, bias, confounding, and power. Each outcome was assessed specific to its indication, and the primary measure of each abovementioned outcome was a summary of the level of evidence. Twenty-one randomized controlled trials were analyzed (7 for trunk and limb pain, inclusive of failed back surgery syndrome; 8 for refractory angina pectoris; 1 for cardiac X syndrome; 3 for critical limb ischemia; 2 for complex regional pain syndrome; and 2 for painful diabetic neuropathy). Evidence assessments for each outcome for each indication were depicted in tabular format. Outcome-specific evidence scores were established for each of the abovementioned indications, providing both physicians and patients with a summary of evidence to assist in choosing the optimal evidence-based intervention. The evidence presented herein has broad applicability as it encompasses a breadth of patient populations, variations of SCS therapy, and comparable controls that, together, reflect comprehensive clinical decision making. Accepted for publication October 22, 2017. Address correspondence to: Nagy Mekhail, MD, PhD, Cleveland Clinic, C25, 9500 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44195 (e-mail: mekhain@ccf.org). The authors declare no conflict of interest. Copyright © 2018 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

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Altered density, composition and microanatomical distribution of infiltrating immune cells in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of organ transplant recipients

Summary

Background

The inflammatory tumor microenvironment is crucial for effective tumor control and long-term immunosuppression has been identified as a major risk factor for skin carcinogenesis. In solid organ transplant recipients (OTR) undergoing long-term pharmacologic immunosuppression an increased incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and more aggressive tumor growth compared to immunocompetent patients (IC) has been reported.

Objectives

To determine the density and phenotype of immune cells infiltrating SCC and surrounding skin in OTR, and to characterize the microanatomical distribution patterns in comparison to IC.

Methods

We analyzed immune cell infiltrates within SCC and at defined regions of interest (ROI) of tumor- surrounding skin in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue of 20 renal transplant patients and 18 carefully matched IC by high-resolution semi-automated microscopy on complete tissue sections stained for CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD68.

Results

The overall immune cell density of SCC arising in OTR was significantly reduced compared to IC. Particularly CD4+ infiltrates at the directly invasive margin and tumor vicinity, intratumoral CD8+ T cell densities and the overall density of CD20+ tumor-infiltrating B cells (TIL-B) were significantly reduced in tissue of OTR.

Conclusions

Immune cells infiltrates within SCC and at defined ROI of tumor-surrounding skin in OTR differ markedly in their composition and microanatomical distribution compared to tumors arising in IC. Our findings substantially broaden the understanding of how long-term systemic immunosuppression modulates the local inflammatory microenvironment in the skin and at the site of invasive SCC.

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Neuraxial Anesthesia During Cesarean Delivery for Placenta Previa With Suspected Morbidly Adherent Placenta: A Retrospective Analysis

BACKGROUND: General anesthesia (GA) is often selected for cesarean deliveries (CD) with placenta previa and suspected morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) due to increased risk of hemorrhage and hysterectomy. We reviewed maternal outcomes and risk factors for conversion to GA in a cohort of patients undergoing CD and hysterectomy under neuraxial anesthesia (NA). METHODS: We performed a single-center, retrospective cohort study of parturients undergoing nonemergent CD for placenta previa with suspected MAP from 1997 to 2015. Patients were classified according to whether they received GA, NA, or intraoperative conversion from NA to GA. The primary outcome measure was postoperative acuity, defined as the need for intensive care unit admission, arterial embolization, reoperation, or ongoing transfusion with ≥3 units packed red blood cells. We additionally identified variables positively associated with intraoperative conversion from NA to GA during hysterectomy. Confounding was controlled with logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of 129 patients undergoing nonemergent CD for placenta previa with suspected MAP, 122 (95%) received NA as the primary anesthetic. NA was selected in the majority of patients with a body mass index ≥40 kg/m2 (9 of 10, 90%), a history of ≥3 prior CDs (18 of 20, 90%), suspected placenta increta or percreta (29 of 35, 83%), and Mallampati classification ≥3 (19 of 21, 90%). Of 72 patients with NA at the time of delivery who required hysterectomy, 15 (21%) required conversion to GA intraoperatively. Converted patients had a higher rate of major packed red blood cell transfusion (60% vs 25%; P = .01), with similar rates of massive transfusion (9% vs 7%; P = 1.0). Converted patients also had a higher incidence of postoperative acuity (47% vs 4%; P

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Point-of-Care Fibrinogen Testing in Pregnancy

Agreement between estimated fibrinogen concentration via thromboelastography and traditional assays is not established in the parturient. We therefore recruited 56 parturients and performed Clauss and functional fibrinogen level (FLEV) tests. Mean difference of measurements was 36.8 mg/dL (95% CI, 21.8–51.9) with a standard deviation of 52.8 mg/dL. Calculated limits of agreement were 140.2 mg/dL (95% CI, 166.3–114.6) and −66.6 mg/dL (95% CI, −40.8 to −92.5), within the maximum allowable difference of 165 mg/dL. We therefore conclude that while most measurements fell within the limits of agreement, more work is needed to clearly define the role of this test in the obstetric population. Accepted for publication December 29, 2017. Funding: None. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website (http://ift.tt/KegmMq). Summary Statement: In this study, the relationship between formal laboratory Clauss and thromboelastography-derived fibrinogen counts is examined. Reprints will not be available from the authors. Address correspondence to Daniel Katz, MD, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave L Levy Pl, Box 1010 KCC 8th Floor, New York, NY 10029. Address e-mail to Daniel.Katz@mountsinai.org. © 2018 International Anesthesia Research Society

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Pupillary Dilation Reflex Measurement: Ideal Time—Pre- or Postsurgery?

No abstract available

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Treatment of Chronic Pain Conditions: A Comprehensive Handbook

No abstract available

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Analgesic Effects of Oxycodone Relative to Those of Sufentanil, in the Presence of Midazolam, During Endoscopic Injection Sclerotherapy for Patients With Cirrhosis and Esophageal Varices

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the efficacy and gastroenterologist/patient satisfaction of midazolam combined with oxycodone, relative to that of midazolam combined with sufentanil, for anesthesia during endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) in patients with cirrhosis and esophageal varices. METHODS: Patients with cirrhosis (20–69 years of age), body mass index, 18–25 kg/m2, American Society of Anesthesiology patient classification physical status I–II who underwent elective EIS were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. In this prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, 1 group received midazolam and oxycodone (n = 64), and the other group received midazolam and sufentanil (n = 63). Primary and secondary outcome measures were compared between groups. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of hypoxia. Secondary outcome measures included perioperative limb movement, need for rescue analgesics, need for additional sedative propofol, specified adverse reactions (postoperative myoclonus, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and drowsiness), gastroenterologist satisfaction, and patient satisfaction with postoperative analgesia. RESULTS: Patients in the midazolam–oxycodone group had 32% fewer episodes of hypoxia than did those in the midazolam–sufentanil group (95% confidence interval [CI], –45% to –18%; P

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