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Πέμπτη, 23 Νοεμβρίου 2017

Mutation independently affects reproductive traits and dauer larvae development in mutation accumulation lines of Caenorhabditis elegans

Abstract

Developmental decisions are important in organismal fitness. For the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is naturally found in the ephemeral food patches formed by rotting plant material, correctly committing to dauer or non-dauer larval development is key to genotype survival. To investigate the link between reproductive traits, which will determine how populations grow, and dauer larvae formation, we have analysed these traits in mutation accumulation lines of C. elegans. We find that reproductive traits of individual worms—the total number of progeny and the timing of progeny production—are highly correlated with the population size observed in growing populations. In contrast, we find no relationship between reproduction traits and the number of dauer larvae observed in growing populations. We also do not observe a mutational bias in dauer larvae formation. These results indicate that the control of dauer larvae formation is distinct from the control of reproduction and that differences in dauer larvae formation can evolve rapidly.



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Conditional Knockdown of Gene Expression in Cancer Cell Lines to Study the Recruitment of Monocytes/Macrophages to the Tumor Microenvironment

This protocol serves as a scheme for setting up a functional Tet-ON system in cancer cell lines and its subsequent use, in particular for studying the role of tumor cell-derived proteins in recruitment of monocytes/macrophages to the tumor microenvironment.

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Chemometric and high-resolution mass spectrometry tools for the characterization and comparison of raw and treated wastewater samples of a pilot plant on the SIPIBEL site

Abstract

Due to its key role in the contamination of natural resources, the assessment of raw and treated wastewater effluents is a current major concern and urges comprehensive analytical methods capable of selectively capturing the chemodiversity of these samples. In this context, the overall objective of this work can be summarized as (i) the assessment of the performance of secondary and tertiary (advanced oxidation) wastewater treatments through multivariate analysis followed by (ii) the comprehensive characterization of wastewater samples based on their spectral fingerprints and a combination of suspect and non-target screening approaches. Several compounds, belonging to different sources of contamination were annotated and/or partially identified: pharmaceuticals, metabolites and transformation compounds, human activity markers, surfactants, and polyethoxy compounds. These results highlight the contribution of filtering and screening tools such as monoisotopic exact mass, mass defect, MS/MS data-dependent acquisitions, isotopic pattern and retention time to the selection, and the identification of environmental contaminants and their metabolites/degradation products. This paper completes the target study conducted in the SIPIBEL site and offers an alternative for the assessment of treatment processes by broadening the spectrum to a larger number of compounds and the correlations between them.



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Recycling of wastes from fish beneficiation by composting: chemical characteristics of the compost and efficiency of their humic acids in stimulating the growth of lettuce

Abstract

Waste from the beneficiation of fish was composted with crushed grass aiming to characterize their chemical composition and investigate the possibility of the use of the final compost as source of humic acids (HA) able to stimulate the growth of lettuce. Compost presented pH value, C/N ratio, and electrical conductivity that allow its use as an organic fertilizer. The element content was present in the following order of abundance in the compost: P > Ca > N > Mg > K > Fe > Zn > Mn > Mo > Cu, and the humus composition was similar to that observed in others kind of organic residues composted. The high content of oxygen pointed out a high level of oxidation of HA, in line with the predominance of phenolic acidity in the functional groups. The 13C-NMR spectra showed marked resonances due to the presence of lipids and other materials resistant to degradation as methoxy substituent and N-alkyl groups. A concentration of 20 mg L−1 HA increased significantly both dry and wet root matter in lettuce but the CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and number of lateral roots of the plants were not affected. However, increases of 64% in the water-use efficiency was observed due to the HA addition, probably related to the root morphology alteration which resulted in 1.6-fold increase of lateral root average length and due to the higher H+ extrusion activity. Reuse of residues from the fish beneficiation activity by composting may represent a safe tool to increase the value of recycled organic residues and generate HA with potential use as plant growth stimulants.



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British Journal of Nursing, Volume 26, Issue 21, Page 1151-1159, November 2017.

British Journal of Nursing, Volume 26, Issue 21, Page 1151-1159, November 2017.


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British Journal of Nursing, Volume 26, Issue 21, Page 1150-1150, November 2017.

British Journal of Nursing, Volume 26, Issue 21, Page 1150-1150, November 2017.


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British Journal of Nursing, Volume 26, Issue 21, Page 1176-1181, November 2017.

British Journal of Nursing, Volume 26, Issue 21, Page 1176-1181, November 2017.


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