! # Ola via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader

Τρίτη, 26 Σεπτεμβρίου 2017

Development of an intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula after venous sinus stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension

We report a case in which an intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) developed after endovascular treatment of a patient with idiopathic intracranial hypertension with venous sinus stenting (VSS). The pathogenesis may involve hemodynamic alterations secondary to increased poststenting venous sinus pressure, which may cause new arterial ingrowth into the fistulous sinus wall without capillary interposition. Despite administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, there may also be subclinical cortical vein thrombosis that contributed to DAVF formation. In addition to the aforementioned mechanisms, increased inflammation induced by VSS may upregulate vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor expression and also promote DAVF pathogenesis. Since VSS has been used to obliterate DAVFs, DAVF formation after VSS may seem counterintuitive. Previous stents have generally been closed cell, stainless steel designs used to maximize radial compression of the fistulous sinus wall. In contrast, our patient's stent was an open cell, self-expandable nitinol design (Protégé Everflex). Neurointerventionalists should be aware of this potential, although rare complication of DAVF formation after VSS.



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Copper deficiency caused by excessive alcohol consumption

Copper deficiency is a disease that causes cytopaenia and neuropathy and can be treated by copper supplementation. Long-term tube feeding, long-term total parenteral nutrition, intestinal resection and ingestion of zinc are known copper deficiency risk factors; however, alcohol abuse is not. In this case, a 71-year-old man had difficulty waking. He had a history of drinking more than five glasses of spirits daily. He was well until 3 months ago. A month before his visit to our hospital, he could not eat meals but continued drinking. He had macrocytic anaemia on admission. Copper and ceruloplasmin levels were markedly low, and we diagnosed copper deficiency. There were no other known risk factors for copper deficiency. After he began drinking cocoa as a copper supplement, the anaemia ameliorated and he was able to walk. This is the first report showing alcohol abuse as a risk factor for copper deficiency.



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Chronic subdural haematoma presenting as freezing of gait

In this report, we describe a case of freezing of gait (FOG) in a patient with chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH). An 81-year-old patient presented with progressive FOG about 6 weeks after a minor head trauma. MRI revealed CSDH in the left hemisphere, resulting in a marked compression of the hemisphere. His FOG disappeared after neurosurgical evacuation of the haematoma. It is suggested that the subdural haematoma in his left frontal cortices caused FOG. CSDH should be considered as a differential diagnosis when FOG develops after a head trauma in elderly patients, and prompt evaluations including neuroimaging and timely neurosurgical intervention are required.



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An unexpected complication following uterine artery embolisation

A 35-year-old nulliparous woman underwent uterine artery embolisation (UAE) for heavy menstrual bleeding and anaemia due to fibroids, refractive to medical and surgical treatment.

Bilateral UAE was performed after cephazolin prophylaxis and analgesia. Postoperatively, pain and abdominal bloating were prominent. Symptoms were initially treated as postembolisation syndrome, and analgesia was escalated. By the third day, pain was worsening and the woman developed marked tachypnoea and tachycardia, with raised inflammatory markers and lactate. An abdominal X-ray and CT showed dilated colon. A colonoscopy demonstrated severe mucosal ulceration down to the muscular layer.

A subtotal colectomy and end ileostomy formation was performed with intraoperative findings of toxic megacolon with near perforation. The cause of the toxic megacolon, in the absence of previous bowel pathology, was attributed to pseudomembranous colitis as a consequence of single dose prophylactic antibiotic.



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Pneumocephalus Following Self-Inflicted Penetrating Brain Injury

Objective. Pneumocephalus is a rare complication that often occurs after traumatic skull base injury, leading to morbidity and mortality. Material and Method. We present the case of a 42-year-old healthy man who injured himself when he stuck a metal stick into his left nasal cavity to relieve prolonged nasal obstruction. Immediate cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea and subsequent meningitis and pneumocephalus occurred later. He was presented at our hospital with fever and meningeal signs. Result. Computed tomography scans revealed left rhinosinusitis and air collection in the subarachnoid space. The patient received the conservative treatment of bed rest, intravenous hydration, head elevation, and broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Pneumocephalus and meningitis resolved without any surgery, and he experienced no other sequela or complication. Conclusion. Pneumocephalus is a rare incidence and can lead to high morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment of pneumocephalus and meningitis proved beneficial for our patient who recovered without any complication or surgery.

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Efficacy and safety of the Janus Kinase 1 inhibitor PF-04965842 in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis: phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

Abstract

Background

PF-04965842 is an oral Janus Kinase 1 inhibitor being investigated for treatment of plaque psoriasis.

Objectives

To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of PF-04965842 in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.

Methods

Patients in this phase 2, placebo-controlled study (NCT02201524) were randomised to receive placebo, 200 mg once-daily (QD), 400 mg QD, or 200 mg twice-daily (BID) PF-04965842 for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) at Week 4. Study enrolment was discontinued on 25 June 2015 due to changes in the sponsor's development priorities.

Results

Fifty-nine patients were randomised and received at least one dose of PF-04965842 or placebo. The estimated treatment effect (active-placebo PASI change from baseline) and 90% CI at Week 4 was –5·1 (–9·2, –1·0), –5·6 (–9·6, –1·6) and –10·0 (–14·2, –5·8) for the 200 mg QD, 400 mg QD and 200 mg BID groups, respectively. At Week 4, the proportion of patients achieving PASI75 was 17% for the placebo and 200 mg QD groups, 50% for the 400 mg QD group and 60% for the 200 mg BID group. There were more abnormal laboratory test results of clinical interest (low neutrophil, reticulocyte and platelet counts) in the 200 mg BID group vs the QD treatment groups. No serious infections or bleeding events related to neutropenia or thrombocytopenia, respectively, were reported.

Conclusions

These results suggest that treatment with PF-04965842 improves symptoms and is well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



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Assessment of age- and sex-related changes in baggy lower eyelids using a novel objective image analysis method: Orbital gray scale analysis

Summary

Background

Baggy lower eyelids (BLEs) are a common aesthetic problem of aging. Valid and reliable assessment tools for BLEs are required to evaluate the current status and treatment outcome.

Aims

Age- and sex-related changes in BLEs were assessed with the orbital gray scale (OGS), a novel objective image analysis method.

Methods

We gathered frontal-view photographs of the faces of the patients who sought for correction of BLEs. Based on the clinical pattern, we classified the BLEs of the subjects into medial (M), medial and central (MC), and medial to lateral (MCL) types. Severity was evaluated using the OGS, a modified method of the linear gray scale analysis.

Results

The BLEs of 1034 subjects were classified. The most common types were MCL type in the men and MC type in the women, respectively. The M and MC types were common in the young subjects, whereas the MCL type was more common in the old subjects (P < .001). The measurements of OGS in 104 subjects showed positive correlation with age, a higher mean value in the men, and a trend toward higher values in the order of M, MC, and MCL types (P < .001 for central and lateral OGS scores). In a multiple linear regression analysis, central and lateral OGS values were significantly related with age, sex, and M-C-L classification type (P < .001).

Conclusion

The M-C-L classification and OGS were significantly associated with both age and sex, proving that they could be potent objective assessment tools for BLEs.



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